The Household Economy of a Prehistoric Horticultural Homestead from the Glenwood Culture of the Great Plains

by Shirley J. Schermer 


The Household Economy of a Prehistoric Horticultural Homestead from the Glenwood Culture of the Great Plains will be an in-depth archaeological report by an interdisciplinary research team on the Wall Ridge site. Wall Ridge (13ML176) is an example of a dispersed homestead consisting of a Central Plains tradition earthlodge. Located in the Loess Hills of southwest Iowa (Figure 1), the Wall Ridge site was excavated in 1984 by the Iowa Archeological Society field school under the direction of Shirley Schermer, Office of the State Archaeologist of Iowa (Schermer 1984, 1987). The work was sponsored by the Office of the State Archaeologist and the Mills County Engineer's Office under the general supervision of Joseph A. Tiffany, who served as Principal Investigator on the project. 

The Glenwood culture stands alone as the only major prehistoric culture in the region which is still virtually unstudied from an integrated economic and paleoecological perspective. The Wall Ridge site was the first Glenwood earthlodge carefully excavated with stratigraphic control, fine screening, and extensive soil sampling from the present ground surface to the floor and sub-floor pits, providing the data base needed for an integrated paleoecological study. This report addresses: 1) paleoecological reconstruction of the site locale; 2) the subsistence base and the relationships between the site economy and the local environment; 3) stratigraphic analysis of house construction and maintenance techniques and post-occupational events and processes; 4) spatial organization within the household; and 5) regional comparisons with other groups in the Central Plains tradition. As an interdisciplinary study, various data sets are integrated and used in several waysfor modeling the site setting, studying resource distribution and use, evaluating data for evidence of climatic change and subsistence activities, and understanding household organization. These results are viewed within the framework of previously proposed models for late prehistoric intensive horticulturists to test their validity for dispersed household systems. 

The proposed report addresses seven research problems pertaining to the study of dispersed horticulturists. These issues are part of a larger theoretical framework exploring the economic systems and adaptational patterns of Great Plains horticulturists. The seven research problems are: 1) seasonality, 2) duration of occupation, 3) size and composition of the resident group, 4) economic/subsistence activities, 5) resource stress, 6) intersocietal relations, and 7) comparison with other maize-based horticulturists. 


The Wall Ridge site was found in 1984 on a reconnaissance survey for prospective borrow pits for a local roads project in Mills County, Iowa (Perry 1983, 1984). This work was conducted by the Office of the State Archaeologist under the auspices of an annual contract with the Iowa Department of Transportation. Limited testing, consisting of 32 posthole tests, identified the presence of a Glenwood culture earthlodge site. While planning further site research pursuant to the National Historic Preservation Act, federal funding for the road project including the Wall Ridge borrow pit was dropped. Because of the importance of the site, the Office of the Mills County Engineer joined with the Office of the State Archaeologist of The University of Iowa in a cooperative Memorandum of Understanding wherein the State Archaeologist's office was awarded $5,505 to excavate the site with volunteer assistance prior to its destruction. The Office of the Mills County Engineer also provided surveying assistance, heavy equipment, and operators. Shirley Schermer and Joseph A. Tiffany, both then of the Office of the State Archaeologist of Iowa, served as Project Director and Principal Investigator respectively for the excavation program. 

Excavation of the Wall Ridge site was carefully controlled from the ground surface to sub-surface pits for one-half of the house. Heavy machinery was used to remove several feet of post-occupation colluvial overburden for the other half, but fine screening of the archaeological matrix and flotation sample collection were employed throughout the excavation and detailed stratigraphic observations were made (Figure 3). When completely excavated, a typical Central Plains earthlodge 9-m square was exposed (Figure 2) as well as a central hearth and nine subsurface storage pits, four of which were bell-shaped. Only the entryway was not found. 

While the excavation only lasted five weeks, sixty-one volunteers, the majority of whom were participants in the Office of State Archaeologist-supervised Iowa Archeological Society Field School, took part in the excavation, contributing an estimated 1,650 hours to the project. A staff field and laboratory assistant were present throughout the project.The Iowa State Preserves Advisory Board contributed $500 toward the project. A donation of $1,000 was made by a private individual. Additionally, the Office of the State Archaeologist and The University of Iowa provided $1,500 of contributed effort. The Iowa Public Broadcasting Network featured the Wall Ridge excavation as part of a series entitled ``Iowa: Land Between Two Rivers,'' which aired statewide in 1985 and has been rebroadcast frequently. 

From 1984 to the present, work on Wall Ridge has focused on processing, inventorying, cataloging, identifying, and describing the material culture and floral and faunal remains from the site. Over 4000 volunteer hours have been contributed toward laboratory processing. Analysis on a volunteer basis by professional researchers and their students has been ongoing on the Wall Ridge site material since 1984. Work has been under the overall supervision of Schermer and Tiffany, and more recently William Green, State Archaeologist of Iowa. The lack of substantial funding for completion of analysis has already stretched the project over an 8-year period. 

In 1987, the Wall Ridge data were discussed in six papers in a symposium on current research on the Central Plains, held at the annual Plains Anthropological Conference (Billeck 1987; Green 1987aHirst 1987; Hudson 1987; Lensink 1987; Schermer 1987). In 1988, Green received a grant of $4,981 from the Iowa Science Foundation (a unit of the Iowa Academy of Science) to conduct a preliminary interdisciplinary application of environmental archaeology to prehistoric western Iowa using the Wall Ridge site data. Results of the Iowa Science Foundation project (Green 1989, 1990) provide information on the subsistence economy of the site's inhabitants and on the site's environmental context. Based on initial analyses by several researchers, Green (1990) reports: 1) a general model of mid-19th century vegetation in the site vicinity based on GLO records; 2) examination of 1,300 terrestrial gastropods representing 27 species which indicate a shift from a droughty local habitat during occupation to a moister, more heavily vegetated setting after abandonment; 3) 13,000 fish remains suggest heavy exploitation by several means of the nearby Missouri floodplain system; 4) molluscs are not abundant, but bivalves were apparently collected from all nearby aquatic zones; 5) 715 avian specimens recovered represent 73 individual birds and 27 species; 6) charcoal identifications indicate primary use of elm and ash for firewood; and 7) other charred plant remains include abundant maize, which has been found in every analyzed sample, as well as the first report of little barley for the central or northern Plains. 


The Glenwood culture is a unit of the Nebraska phase or variant of the Central Plains tradition. Throughout the Central Plains by about A.D. 1000 there existed a series of settled farming communities whose residents built substantial earthlodge houses. The archaeologicalremains of these communities found along both sides of the Missouri River in eastern Nebraska, southwestern Iowa, northwestern Missouri, and northeastern Kansas are grouped into what is called the Nebraska culture or phase. Similar sites in an area extending from northern Kansas across central Nebraska west to Colorado are referred to as Upper Republican. The Smoky Hill phase is represented by sites throughout central Kansas, and sites representing a more recently defined Pomona phase are found in eastern Kansas. All of these phases belong to what archaeologistshave named the Central Plains tradition (Wedel 1959, 1978). These contemporary cultures of the Central Plains tradition may share a common cultural ancestry and exhibit a number of very similar characteristics, but they differ sufficiently to be separated into distinct groups. Although the historic Pawnee are widely believed to have roots in the Central Plains tradition, the exact ancestral relationships of these prehistoric Central Plains variants to the Pawnee or other historic tribes are still unclear (Grange 1968; Wedel 1938, 1978). 

Over 70 recorded Central Plains earthlodges in the Glenwood locality of southern Iowa represent a fully- developed expansion of Nebraska phase people into the area ca. A.D. 10501225 (Zimmerman 1977b:125). Field and archival research in the 1990s has increased that number to approximately 240 lodges or probable lodges (OSA site files; Billeck 1992b).These sites are dispersed in a settlement pattern common for the Nebraska phase, and they contain the full range of reported material culture for the Nebraska phase. The Glenwood ``culture'' had a settlement pattern of individual farmsteads scattered along ridge summits, low terraces, and slopes of the valley walls of major interior drainages in the locality (Pony Creek, Keg Creek, and Horse Creek), and along the Missouri valley wall in the Western Loess Hills of southwest Iowa. There are clusters of Glenwood earthlodge sites where larger alluvial features are found in the locality such as the confluence of Keg and Horse Creeks or on lower, broader ridge summits and divides. One site cluster facing the Missouri valley is called the Kullbom ``village,'' but such clusters may represent re-use of preferred areas by kin-based groups over time and not villages per se. 


The goal of this report is to provide a comprehensive look at the household economy of a dispersed homestead of the Nebraska culture and compare this economic adaptation to other horticultural groups from the Plains, Midwest, and elsewhere with both dispersed and nucleated settlement patterns. 

The Wall Ridge site is the only Glenwood earthlodge site to be excavated from the ground surface to sub- surface features utilizing fine screening (¼-inch mesh) of the matrix and stratigraphic correlation and control. Detailed excavation records provide location of all artifacts by horizontal excavation units within each 10-cm stratigraphic level. All diagnostic artifacts were piece plotted. 

Soil samples of uniform size (10 x 10 x 10 cm; 1 liter) from all stratigraphic units and from the fill of all pit features were collected for recovery of floral and microfaunal remains. Additionally, a 0.8 x 1.57 m soil column extending from the modern ground surface to 20 cm below the floor of the Wall Ridge house basin was collected. This column was positioned to avoid all visible intrusions or disturbances, and was intended to sample the gastropod fauna associated with site occupation and the subsequent deposition of fill within and finally over the house basin. 

Materials were washed, cataloged, and inventoried by site provenience. Over 60,000 specimens have been cataloged. All soil samples were subjected to water screening and water flotation techniques for microfauna and floral data recovery. Nearly 500 liters of house basin feature fill were sampled through flotation using a No. 60 screen (0.25-mm mesh) for recovery of small seeds and snails. 

As a part of general analysis and presentation of excavation results, the final report provides a description of all cultural features and cultural and biotic materials. An analysis of the vertical and horizontal patterning of the artifacts within the household is also provided. 


Work on the Nebraska phase has been more intensive and sustained than on other Iowa prehistoric manifestations and has resulted in many of the publications cited in the Bibliography. Several of these reports have excellent historical summaries of Glenwood locality research (Anderson 1975; Benn 1986; Blakeslee and Caldwell 1979; Green 1990; Morrow 1995; Perry 1987a,b; Zimmerman 1976). 

Early excavations, many of which were of a salvage nature or conducted by amateurs 30 to 60 years ago, often ignored stratigraphy or intra-site data relationships within the lodge basins. Brown published the only site profiles of Glenwood earthlodges (Brown 1967:56, 67). These sites were excavated by shoveling and troweling in 6-inch levels with no fine screening, and the profile descriptions are of a very general nature. The majority of the excavations conducted under contract with the National Park Service or the Iowa Department of Transportation in the late 1960s and early 1970s have never been adequately reported (Hotopp 1978a). Earthlodges dug under the auspices of highway salvage archaeology after 1971 employed fine-screening (¼ inch) of the archaeological matrix with some judgmental use of water-screening through 1/16-inch mesh screen of house and feature fill (Bardwell 1981). These better sampled sites produced abundant size-graded floral and faunal remains (Adair 1988; Cutler and Blake 1976; Nickel n.d.), but flotation and screening through 40-mesh or finer screen, which is needed to recover small but environmentally important data such as snails, fish bone and seeds (Munson 1981; Styles 1981), were not used even though these techniques were known and available to researchers at the time. With such limited data collection, research on the Glenwood culture to date has focused primarily on cultural-historical issues, floor plans, and limited paleoecological reconstruction. More recent work through has employed more complete recovery techniques (e.g, Bozell and Ludwickson 1994) 

Temporal/Processual Models 

Models of Glenwood cultural development can be summarized as follows. Anderson's (1961) initial study defined three sequential phases in the Glenwood locality based on a ceramic seriation which showed a general trend through time from collared to plain wares. Ordination of the sites revealed a geographic trend in the locality based on ceramic changes which from early to late and generally south to north, Anderson (1961) termed the Keg Creek, Pony Creek, and Kullbom phases. Using subsequent radiocarbon dates and data from highway salvage excavations in the late 1960s and early 1970s, Zimmerman (1977b) and Hotopp (1978a,b, 1982) showed that although sites with predominantly collared wares were generally earlier than sites where plain wares predominated, there was no apparent linear relationship supporting a geographic occupational sequence. In fact, radiocarbon dates suggested several sites in Pony and Keg Creek were apparently contemporaneous. One interpretation of this phenomenon is that groups were apparently moving throughout the locality during the length of the occupation. Current research based on Wall Ridge pottery (Billeck 1987) suggests that two or three groups continuously and contemporaneously occupied the locality along the major drainages. In this model, Anderson's phases are not sequential but generally coeval and spatially discrete in nature. The changes in ceramic popularity evident at many sites suggest two or more kin- based groups occupied the locality. 

Glenwood earthlodge sites late in the occupation sequence (Kullbom phase) contain Correctionville-Blue Earth-style Oneota shell tempered pottery as well as locally made pottery with Oneota decorative motifs. Even though the Glenwood occupation spans the Stirling phase, the time of maximum Cahokia-based Mississippian influence in the upper Midwest (Emerson and Lewis 1991), Glenwood sites show no evidence for Stirling phase interaction (i.e., Powell Plain or Ramey Incised trade pottery). Exotic materials in the Glenwood locality and the Nebraska phase are of a generalized nature and point strongly to Caddoan sources (McNerney 1987; Tiffany 1991:188189). These data suggest that the Glenwood occupation and perhaps the Nebraska phase expansion is both later and shorter in duration than the radiocarbon dates suggest (Zimmerman 1977b:126; Hotopp 1978b). 

Several attempts have been made to explain the settlement pattern of the Nebraska phase which, while exhibiting instances of apparent nucleated hamlets, is marked by a high proportion of dispersed households scattered across the landscape. Anderson and Zimmerman (1976:152) argue that the dispersed earthlodge pattern of the Glenwood locality represents an adaptation to the rugged Loess Hills landscape where level ground is at a premium and is confined to the few interior drainage systems and the Missouri valley floor. Alternately, they propose that houses may be situated so as to reduce the distance to wild food resourcesnuts from trees on the loess ridges and floodplain plants and animals from the Missouri valley (also see Hotopp 1978:113). Krause (1970:110111) makes a similar argument for the Upper Republican homesteads, emphasizing that a dispersed population can more efficiently utilize solitary game animals and collectable wild foods, mainly aquatic animals, by reducing competition for local resources. He proposes that the transition from hamlets to isolated homesteads was ultimately induced by the shift to a cooler, drier climatic regime after A.D. 1250 (Baerreis and Bryson 1965) which made maize agriculture more risky and prompted an increased reliance on game animals and aquatic foods. Finally, Zimmerman (1977:43) has suggested that the dispersed pattern in the Glenwood locality may reflect a pioneer-type homestead situation associated with a peaceful, initial settlement of a previously unoccupied area. 

Paleoecological Research 

Much of Glenwood research has focused on cultural-historical issues and house types and their distribution. In contrast, the proposed project adopts the broad framework of environmental archaeology, the goal of which is to use human ecological data from prehistoric communities ``to determine the interrelationship between culture and environment'' (Butzer 1982:5; see also Baerreis 1970b, and King and Graham 1981). This kind of paleoecological approach has been applied to western Iowa archaeological research for almost 30 years on a wide variety of sites representing the Archaic, Woodland, Great Oasis, and Mill Creek cultures (Anderson and Semken 1980; Baerreis [editor] 1970; Benn 1990; Bettis and Thompson 1982; Bryson and Baerreis 1968; Dallman 1983; Tiffany 1982, 1983, 1988; Zalucha 1982). The Glenwood culture stands alone as the only major prehistoric culture in the region which is still virtually unstudied from an integrated paleoecological perspective. 

Paleoecological research of the kind common to western Iowa archaeology is also uncommon for Central Plains tradition studies in general. Wood's (1969) seminal publication, Two House Sites in the Central Plains: An Experiment in Archaeology, represents the collaborative effort of several scholars and is the only widely- published attempt at the kind of comprehensive paleoecological study proposed for the Wall Ridge site conducted on Central Plains tradition sites. One of the houses studied was from the Upper Republican variant, the other from the Nebraska variant (sic phase). Of the two houses examined, the Upper Republican variant house was much more thoroughly analyzed. 

The goal was to extract ``as much as possible from a limited field endeavor'' (Wood 1969:2). Neither site was subjected to fine screening of the archaeological matrix. The excavation of the Nuzum, Nebraska variant site, was hurried. Definition of the structure was difficult and data recovery was limited (Wood 1969:6367). The Mowry Bluff Upper Republican site was excavated with shovels and a front-end loader to remove the deposits above the floor; the fill over the floor was removed by shovel skimming (Wood 1969:6). All the sub-floor features were fine screened, however, and numerous matrix samples were removed for water screening and water flotation (Wood 1969:6). Beyond Wood's comments, detailed reporting of the methods used and sampling procedures and sample sizes employed is largely absent. Baerreis' (1969:51) discussion of gastropods from the site describes the size of screen mesh he used (.420 mm) and the sampling methods he employed. 

However, the discussion of the faunal remains states only that the materials were from a sample which was water screened through a ``fine wire mesh'' (Falk 1969:44). Generally, excellent data are presented, but as Wedel (1970) noted, the quality and completeness of each component paper for both sites is uneven. The site stratigraphy was briefly described, but the cultural deposits are not correlated with the sediments. Only brief comments are made in some of the reports on the distribution and internal stratigraphic relationships among the recovered artifacts. 

Wood's Two House Sites . . . study was a pioneering effort in paleoecological research at the time, and it put Central Plains research on a par with then current state-of-the-art studies on Initial Middle Missouri sites in northwest Iowa and eastern South Dakota by using approaches and methods and by testing theoretical assumptions then in use by researchers in Mesoamerica and Southeast Asia investigating neolithic communities and the origins of agriculture. Even though the study met with some criticism (Wedel 1970), it represented a major methodological breakthrough which unfortunately has not been consistently followed up in Central Plains archaeology since its publication. Bozell's (1991) recent faunal analysis of an Upper Republican phase site in Nebraska represents an exception to this trend, but provides no additional information on the Nebraska phase. 

In the Glenwood locality, some research has been done on the ecological parameters of site location and modeling of past vegetative resources (Anderson and Zimmerman 1976; Tiffany and Abbott 1982). No comprehensive studies have been done, however, to model site environments at the time of occupation or to establish and quantify the nature of the Glenwood subsistence economy. Important classes of materials such as molluscan, fish, crustacean, avian, and floral remains have yet to be reported in detail from a Glenwood earthlodge site. The most thorough analyses to date have focused on mammalian remains, particularly small mammals (Bardwell 1981; Eschelman 1970; Johnson 1972; Semken and Falk 1987). Non-cultural mammalian and gastropod faunas from the Glenwood area have provided critical comparative and baseline data for environmental reconstruction (Fay 1978; Frest and Dickson 1986; Rhodes 1984; Rhodes and Semken 1986). Although general pre-settlement vegetation zones have been modeled for part of the Glenwood locality (Anderson and Zimmerman 1976; Johnson 1972; Perry 1987a; Tiffany and Abbott 1982), local plant composition has not been investigated in detail for any particular site, thereby limiting interpretation of human paleoecological patterns. 


Abbott, Larry, and Dennis Miller
1978 An Archaeological Survey of the Foothills Park Development, Glenwood State Hospital-School, Mills County, Iowa. Contract Completion Report 147. Office of the State Archaeologist, Iowa City.

Adair, Mary J.
1988 Prehistoric Cultivation in the Central Plains: Its Development and Importance. Publications in Anthropology No. 16. University of Kansas, Lawrence.

Anderson, Adrian D.
1954 Stone Artifacts from the Glenwood Area. Journal of the Iowa Archeological Society 4(2):2-16.
1960a Preliminary Notes on Excavations in Southwestern Iowa. Ms. on file, Office of the State Archaeologist, Iowa City.
1960b A Preliminary Report on 13ML12, a House-Site in the Glenwood Area. Ms. on file, Office of the State Archaeologist, Iowa City.
1960c Report on 13ML5. The Analysis of a Surface Collection of Sherds and Stones. Ms. on file, Office of the State Archaeologist, Iowa City.
1961 The Glenwood Sequence: A Local Sequence for a Series of Archaeological Manifestations in Mills County, Iowa. Journal of the Iowa Archeological Society 10(3):1-101.
1970 The Stille Site: Analysis and Conclusions. Ms. on file, Office of the State Archaeologist, Iowa City.
1973 Phase III Highway Salvage Archaeology 1966-69. In Archaeological Explorations along Iowa Highways, by Marshall McKusick, James R. Boylan, and John A. Hotopp. Report submitted to the Iowa Department of Transportation. Copy on file, Office of the State Archaeologist, Iowa City.
1983 The Impact of Structure 21 on Pony Creek Archaeology. Survey and Salvage Report for CX1200-0- 3539 and CX1200-0-3500. Copy on file, Office of the State Archaeologist, Iowa City.

Anderson, Adrian D., and Barbara Anderson
1960 Pottery Types of the Glenwood Foci. Journal of the Iowa Archeological Society 9(4):12-39.

Anderson, Adrian D., and Larry J. Zimmerman
1976 Settlement-Subsistence Variability in the Glenwood Locality, Southwestern Iowa. Plains Anthropologist 21:141-154.

Anderson, Duane C.
1975 The Development of Iowa Archaeology: an Overview. Proceedings of the Iowa Academy of Science 82:71-76.
1981 Mill Creek Ceramics: The Complex from the Brewster Site. Report 14. Office of the State Archeologist of Iowa, Iowa City.
1987 Toward a Processual Understanding of the Initial Variant of the Middle Missouri Traditions: The Case of the Mill Creek Culture of Iowa. American Antiquity 52:522-537.

Anderson, Duane C., and Holmes A. Semken, Jr. (editors)
1980 The Cherokee Excavations: Holocene Ecology and Human Adaptations in Northwestern Iowa. Academic Press, New York.

Anderson, Duane C., and Lise Tatum
1978 An Analysis of the Stone Tool Assemblage from 13ML155: A Nebraska Phase Earthlodge from Southwestern Iowa. Research Papers 3(2). Office of the State Archaeologist, Iowa City.

Anderson, Duane C., and Ilene Whitworth
1977 An Analysis of Ceramics from 13ML155: A Nebraska Phase Earthlodge from Southwestern Iowa. Research Papers 2(10). Office of the State Archaeologist, Iowa City.

Baerreis, David A.
1969 Gastropod Analysis. In Two House Sites in the Central Plains: An Experiment in Archaeology, edited by W. Raymond Wood, pp. 51-57. Plains Anthropologist Memoir 6.
1970 The ``New Archaeology'' from an Old Perspective: An Appraisal of Current Trends in ArchaeologyUniversitas 6/7:267-276.
1971 Environmental Reconstruction through Mollusc Remains: Preliminary Report on the Banks Site. In Prehistoric Investigations, edited by Marshall McKusick, pp. 95-108. Report 3. Office of the State Archaeologist, Iowa City.
1973 Gastropods and Archaeology. In Variation in Anthropology, edited by Donald W. Lathrap and J. Douglas, pp. 43-53. Illinois Archaeological Survey, Urbana.
1980 Habitat and Climatic Interpretation from Terrestrial Gastropods at the Cherokee Site. In The Cherokee Excavations, edited by Duane C. Anderson and Holmes A. Semken, Jr., pp. 101-122. Academic Press, New York.

Baerreis, David A. (editor)
1970 Environmental Archaeology in Western Iowa. Newsletter, Northwest Chapter of the Iowa Archeological Society, 18(5):3-15.

Baerreis, David A., and Reid A. Bryson
1965 Climatic Episodes and the Dating of the Mississippian Cultures. The Wisconsin Archeologist 46:203-220.

Bardwell, Jennifer
1981 The Paleoecological and Social Significance of the Zooarchaeological Remains from Central Plains Tradition Earthlodges of the Glenwood Locality, Mills County, Iowa. Unpublished M.A. thesis, Graduate College, University of Iowa, Iowa City.

Benn, David W.
1986 The Western Iowa Rivers Basin: An Archaeological Overview. Report No. CAR-677. Center for Archaeological Research, Southwest Missouri State University, Springfield.

Benn, David W. (editor)
1981 Archaeological Investigations at the Rainbow Site, Plymouth County, Iowa. Luther College Archaeological Research Center, Decorah, Iowa.
1990 Woodland Cultures on the Western Prairies: The Rainbow Site Investigations. Report 18. Office of the State Archaeologist of Iowa, Iowa City.

Bettis, E. Arthur, III, and Dean M. Thompson
1982 Interrelations of Cultural and Fluvial Deposits in Northwest Iowa. Association of Iowa Archaeologists, University of South Dakota, Vermilion.

Billeck, William
1987 Reexamination of the Nebraska Phase Ceramic Sequence in the Glenwood Locality, Iowa. Paper presented at the 45th Plains Conference, Columbia, Missouri.
1992a Points in Time: Regional Implications of a Triangular Points Sequence in the Glenwood Locality, Iowa. Paper presented at the 50th Plains Anthropological Conference, Lincoln, Nebraska.
1992b Archaeological Survey of Paul Rowe Sites in Mills County, Iowa. Journal of the Iowa Archeological Society 39:66-90.
1993 Time and Space in the Glenwood Locality: The Nebraska Phase in Western Iowa. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Missouri, Columbia.

Blakeslee, Donald J.
1987 Swidden Horticulture on the Great Plains: Explaining Plains Village Settlement Patterns. Paper presented at the 45th Plains Conference, Columbia, Missouri.

Blakeslee, Donald J., and Warren W. Caldwell
1979 The Nebraska Phase: An Appraisal. Reprints in Anthropology Vol. 18. J & L Reprint, Lincoln, Nebraska.

Boylan, James R.
1973 A Comparative Analysis of Lithic Industries and Subsistence Patterns in Western Iowa from 800-1550 AD. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Wayne State University, Detroit.

Bozell, John R.
1991 Fauna from the Hulme Site and Comments on Central Plains Tradition Subsistence Variability. Plains Anthropologist 36:229-253.

Bozell, John R., and John Ludwickson
1994 Nebraska Phase Archeology in the South Bend Locality. Nebraska State Historical Society, Lincon, Nebraska.

Brown, Lionel
1963 Records from Pony Creek Archaeology. Ms. on file, Office of the State Archaeologist, Iowa City.
1966 Temporal and Spatial Order in the Central Plains. Plains Anthropologist 11:294-301.
1967 Pony Creek Archaeology. Publications in Salvage Archaeology, No. 5. River Basin Surveys, Smithsonian Institution, Lincoln, Nebraska.

Bryson, Reid A., and David A. Baerreis
1968 Introduction and Project Summary. In Climatic Change and the Mill Creek Culture of Iowa, Part I, edited by Dale R. Henning, pp. 1-34. Journal of the Iowa Archeological Society 15.

Butzer, Karl W.
1982 Archaeology as Human Ecology. Cambridge University Press, New York.

Chang, Kwang-Chih
1958 Study of the Neolithic Social Grouping: Examples from the New World. American Anthropologist 60:298-334.

Chumbley, Craig A.
1990 Mid-nineteenth Century Vegetation of the Glenwood Locality. In Glenwood Culture Paleoenvironment and Diet: Analysis of Plant and Animal Remains from the Wall Ridge Earthlodge (13ML176), Mills County, Iowa. Research Papers 15(6):8-20, Office of the State Archaeologist, University of Iowa, Iowa City.

Cook, Sherburne F., and Robert F. Heizer
1968 Relationships among Houses, Settlement Areas, and Population in Aboriginal California. In Settlement Archaeology, edited by Kwang-Chih Chang, pp. 79-116. National Press, Palo Alto, California.

Cutler, Hugh C., and Leonard W. Blake
1976 Plants from Archaeological Sites East of the Rockies. American Archaeology Reports No. 1. University of Missouri, Columbia.

Dallman, John E.
1983 A Choice of Diet: Response to Climatic Change. Report 16. Office of the State Archaeologist, Iowa City.

Davis, Donald D., and Paul R. Rowe
1960 Further Notes on the Glenwood Culture: The Stille Site. Journal of the Iowa Archeological Society 9(3):13-17.

DeBoer, Warren R.
1988 Subterranean Storage and the Organization of Surplus: The View from Eastern North America. Southeastern Archaeology 7:1-20.

Emerson, Thomas E., and R. Barry Lewis (editors)
1991 Cahokia and the Hinterlands: Middle Mississippian Cultures of the Midwest. University of Illinois Press, Urbana.

Eshelman, Ralph E.
1970 Topography and Stratigraphy of the Lincoln I Site, 13ML119; Bone Artifacts of the Lincoln I Site; Faunal Analysis of the Lincoln I Site, 13ML119. Ms. on file, Office of the State Archaeologist, Iowa City.

Evans, John G.
1978 An Introduction to Environmental Archaeology. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York.

Falk, Carl R.
1969 Faunal Remains. In Two House Sites in the Central Plains: An Experiment in Archaeology, edited by W. R. Wood, pp. 44-56. Plains Anthropologist Memoir 6.

Fay, Leslie P.
1978 Mammals of the Garrett Farm and Pleasant Ridge Local Biotas (Holocene), Mills County, Iowa. Unpublished M.S. thesis, Department of Geology, University of Iowa, Iowa City.

Finney, Fred A.
1985 The Carbon Dioxide Site. In American Bottom ArchaeologyFAI-270 Site Reports, vol. 11, edited by Charles J. Bareis and James W. Porter, pp. 1-167. University of Illinois Press, Urbana.

Frest, Terrence J., and Jeffrey R. Dickson
1986 Land Snails (Pleistocene_Recent) of the Loess Hills: A Preliminary Survey. Proceedings of the Iowa Academy of Science 93:130-157.

Fulmer, Darrell W.
1974 A Central Plains Earthlodge: 13ML124. Unpublished M.A. thesis, University of Iowa, Iowa City.

Gallagher, James P., and Katherine P. Stevenson
1982 Oneota Subsistence and Settlement in Southwestern Wisconsin. In Oneota Studies, edited by Guy E. Gibbon, pp. 15-27. Publications in Anthropology No. 1. University of Minneosta, Minneapolis.

Gibbon, Guy E.
1983 The Blue Earth Phase of Southern Minnesota. Journal of the Iowa Archeological Society 30:1-84.

Gradwohl, David M.
1969 Prehistoric Villages in Eastern Nebraska. Publications in Anthropology 4. Nebraska State Historical Society, Lincoln.

Grange, Robert T., Jr.
1968 Pawnee and Lower Loup Pottery. Publications in Anthropology No. 3. Nebraska State Historical Society, Lincoln.

Green, William
1987a Archaeobotanical Analysis of 13ML176, A Glenwood Earthlodge in Southwestern Iowa. Paper presented at the 45th Plains Conference, Columbia, Missouri.
1987b Between Hopewell and Mississippian: Late Woodland in the Prairie Peninsula as Viewed from the Western Illinois Uplands. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Wisconsin, Madison. University Microfilms, Ann Arbor, Michigan.
1989 Prehistoric Utilization of Little Barley (Hordeum pusillum) at a Nebraska Phase (Central Plains Tradition) Earthlodge. Paper presented at the 101st annual meeting of the Iowa Academy of Science, Storm Lake.
1991 The Paul Rowe Archaeological Collection: A Key to Central Plains Prehistory. Plains Anthropologist 36:79-85.

Green, William (editor)
1990 Glenwood Culture Paleoenvironment and Diet: Analysis of Plant and Animal Remains from the Wall Ridge Earthlodge (13ML176), Mills County, Iowa. Research Papers 15(6). Office of the State Archaeologist of Iowa, Iowa City.

Griffin, James B.
1942 Review of ``Culture Sequence in the Great Plains'' by Waldo R. Wedel. American Antiquity 7:331-332.

Gunnerson, James H.
1952 Some Nebraska Culture Pottery Types. Plains Archeological Conference News Letter 5(3):39-49.

Harn, Alan D.
1991 Comments on Subsistence, Seasonality and Site Function at Upland Subsidiaries in the Spoon River Area: Mississippianization at Work on the Northern Frontier. In Cahokia and the Hinterlands: Middle Mississippian Culture of the Midwest, edited by Thomas E. Emerson and R. Barry Lewis, pp. 157-163. University of Illinois Press, Urbana

Harvey, Amy E.
1979 Oneota Culture in Northwest Iowa. Report 12. Office of the State Archaeologist, Iowa City.

Hirst, K. Kris
1987 Fresh Water Musssel-Shell Tools Found at Glenwood Sites, Iowa. Paper presented at the 45th Annual Plains Anthropological Conference, Columbia, Missouri.
1988a Late Prehistoric Freshwater Mussel Shell Use. Paper presented at the Midwest Archaeological Conference, Urbana, Illinois.
1988b Mussels from 13ML176. Paper presented at the Quaternary Studies Brown Bag, Department of Geology, University of Iowa, Iowa City.
1988c A Typology for Nebraska Phase Shell Tools. Paper presented at the 100th Session, Iowa Academy of Science, Iowa State University, Ames.
1989 The Usefulness of Analyses of Freshwater Clamshells at Nonmidden Sites. Paper presented at the 47th Annual Plains Anthropological Conference, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.
1990a Shell Games: Identifying Plant Deposits on Freshwater Mussel Shells. Paper presented at the Office of the State Archaeologist Staff Seminar, Iowa City. 
1990b Shell Games: Silica Deposits on Naiad Shell Corn Shellers. Poster paper, coauthored by Robert G. Thompson. Thirteenth Annual Society of Ethnobiology Conference, Phoenix, Arizona.
1990c Tracing the Use of Freshwater Naiad Shells as Prehistoric Implements through Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-ray Microanalysis. Poster paper, co-authored by Robert G. Thompson and Katherine S. Walters. XIIth International Congress for Electron Microscropy, Seattle, Washington.
1991 Shell Games: Freshwater Naiad Shells as Raw Material for Tools. Fifty-sixth Annual Meeting, Society for American Archaeology, New Orleans.

Hodder, J. and C. Orton
1987 Spatial Analysis in Archaeology. Cambridge University Press, New York.

Hotopp, John A.
1972 The Iowa Extension of the Central Plains Tradition. Paper presented at the 30th Plains Conference, Lincoln, Nebraska.
1978a Settlement Patterns, Structures, and Temporal Placement of the Central Plains Tradition in Iowa. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Iowa, Iowa City.
1978b Glenwood: A Contemporary View. In The Central Plains Tradition: Internal Developments and External Relationships, edited by Donald J. Blakeslee, pp. 109-133. Report 11, Office of the State Archaeologist, Iowa City.
1982 Some Observations on the Central Plains Tradition in Iowa. In Plains Indian Studies: A Collection of Essays in Honor of John C. Ewers and Waldo R. Wedel, edited by Douglas H. Ubelaker and Herman J. Viola, pp. 173-192. Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology No. 30. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.

Hotopp, John A., R. Sanders Rhodes, III, and Holmes A. Semken
1973 Waubonsie Watershed Survey. Report to the National Park Service, Contract Nos. 2-920-P2-0043 and CX-6000-3-0038. Copy on file, National Park Service, Lincoln, and Office of the State Archaeologist, Iowa City.

Hudson, LuAnn
1987 Activities Suggested by the Bone and Antler Tool Assemblages at 13ML176, a Glenwood Earthlodge. Paper presented at the 45th Plains Conference, Columbia, Missouri.

Ives, John C.
1955 Glenwood Ceramics. Journal of the Iowa Archeological Society 4(3-4):2-32.

Johnson, Allen W., and Timothy Earle
1987 The Evolution of Human Societies. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California.

Johnson, Paul C.
1972 Mammalian Remains Associated with Nebraska Phase Earth Lodges in Mills County, Iowa. Unpublished M.S. thesis, Department of Geology, University of Iowa, Iowa City.

King, Frances B., and Russell W. Graham
1981 Effects of Ecological and Paleoecological Patterns on Subsistence and Paleoenvironmental Reconstructions. American Antiquity 46:128-142.

Krause, Richard A.
1970 Aspects of Adaptation among Upper Republican Subsistence Cultivators. In Pleistocene and Recent Environments of the Central Great Plains, edited by Wakefield Dort and J. Knox Jones, Jr., pp. 103-115. Special Publication 3. Department of Geology, University of Kansas, Lawrence.

Lehmer, D. J.
1971 Middle Missouri Archaeology. Anthropological Papers 1. National Park Service, Washington, D.C.

Lensink, Stephen C.
1984 A Quantitative Model of Central-Place Foraging Among Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherers. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Iowa, Iowa City. University Microfilms, Ann Arbor.
1986 Investigation at 13WS61--The Sweeting Site, Summary. In Archaeological Investigations along the F-518 Corridor: Phase III Mitigations at 13WS61, 13WS65, 13WS122, 13WS126, edited by Stephen C. Lensink, pp. 112-114. Iowa Quaternary Studies Contribution 9. University of Iowa, Iowa City.
1987 Lithic Resources Utilization at 13ML176, A Nebraska Phase Earthlodge in the Glenwood Locality, Iowa Paper presented at the 45th Plains Conference, Columbia, Missouri.
1988 Subterranean Storage in Mill Creek and Nebraska Phase Sites in Iowa. Paper presented at the 46th Annual Plains Conference, Wichita, Kansas.

McConaughy, Mark A.
1986 The Rench Site Late Woodland/Mississippian Farming Hamlet from the Central Illinois River Valley: Food for Thought. Paper presented at the 51st annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology, New Orleans. Contribution No. 87. Archaeological and Quaternary Studies Program, Illinois State Museum, Springfield

McConaughy, Mark A., Claude V. Jackson, and Francis B. King
1985 Two Early Mississippian Period Structures from the Rench Site (11P4), Peoria County, Illinois. Midcontinental Journal of Archaeology10:171-193.

McNerney, Michael J.
1987 The Effigy Complex of the Nebraska Phase and the Problem of Nebraska Phase-Mississippian Relationships. Journal of the Iowa Archeological Society 34:22-50.

Mehrer, Mark W.
1988 The Settlement Patterns and Social Power of Cahokia's Hinterland Households. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Illinois, Urbana

Milner, George R.
1986 Mississippian Period Population Density in a Segment of Central Mississippi River Valley. American Antiquity 51:227-238.

Milner, George R., Eve Anderson, and Virginia G. Smith
1991 Warfare in Late Prehistoric West-Central Illinois. American Antiquity 56:581-603.

Monks, Gregory G.
1981 Seasonality Studies. In Advances in Archaeological Method and Theory, vol. 4, edited by Michael B. Schifferpp. 177-240. Academic Press, New York.

Morrow, Toby
1995 Phase III Excavations at 13ML118 and 13ML175, Mills County, Iowa. Contract Completion Report 469. Office of the State Archaeologist, University of Iowa, Iowa City.

Munson, Patrick J.
1981 Note on the Use and Misuse of Water-Separation (``Flotation'') for the Recovery of Small-Scale Botanical Remains. Midcontinental Journal of Archaeology 6:123-126.

Naroll, Raoul
1962 Floor Area and Settlement Population. American Antiquity 27:587-589.

Nickel, Robert K.
n.d. Botanical Remains from Sites in Mills County, Iowa. Ms. on file, Office of the State Archaeologist, Iowa City.

Orr, Ellison J.
1953a Report of an Archaeological Survey of Mills County, Iowa. Iowa Archaeological Reports Vol. 10. Effigy Mounds National Monument, McGregor, Iowa.
1953b Sundry Archaeological Papers and Memoranda, vol. 12. Ms. on file, Effigy Mounds National Monument, McGregor, Iowa. 
1963 Iowa Archaeological Reports 1934-1939 with an Evaluation and Index by Marshall McKusick. Archives of Archaeology, Society for American Archaeology. Microcard Series No. 20. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison.

Perry, Michael J.
1983 RS-6026(4) Mills County Local Roads. Project Completion Report 7(113). Office of the State Archaeologist, Iowa City.
1984 RS-6026(4) Mills County Local Systems Borrow Inspections. Letter report to Iowa Department of Transportation. Copy on file. Office of the State Archaeologist, Iowa City.
1987 Phase II Test Excavations at Sites 13ML118, 13ML122, and 13ML175, Local Roads Project Rs- 6026(6), Mills County, Iowa. Project Completion Report 10(122). Office of the State Archaeologist, Iowa City.
1987b Recent Investigations in the Glenwood Locality, Iowa. Paper presented at the 45th Plains Conference, Columbia, Missouri.

Prior Jean C.
1976 A Regional Guide to Iowa Landforms. Educational Series No. 3. Iowa Geological Survey, Iowa City.

Rhodes, R. Sanders, III
1984 Paleoecology and Regional Paleoclimatic Implications of the Farmdalian Craigmile and Woodfordian Waubonsie Mammalian Local Faunas, Southwestern Iowa. Reports of Investigations No. 40. Illinois State Museum, Springfield.

Rhodes, R. Sanders, III, and Holmes A. Semken, Jr.
1976 Paleontological Investigations within the Waubonsie Creek Watershed, Iowa. NTIS PB-260 767. Department of Geology, University of Iowa, Iowa City. Submitted to National Park Service, Denver. Copy on file, Department of Geology, University of Iowa, Iowa City.
1986 Quaternary Biostratigraphy and Paleoecology of Fossil Mammals from the Loess Hills Region of Western Iowa. Proceedings of the Iowa Academy of Science 93:94-130.

Rowe, Paul R.
1922 Decorative markings on some fragments of Indian pottery from Mills County, Iowa. Proceedings of the Iowa Academy of Sciences 29:53-9.
1952a Early Horizons of Mills County, Iowa. Part I, Evidences of Early Man. Journal of the Iowa Archeological Society 1(3):6-13.
1952b Early Horizons of Mills County, Iowa. Part II, Pre-Pottery Sites. Journal of the Iowa Archeological Society 2(1):3-10.

Schermer, Shirley J.
1984 Glenwood Excavation. Iowa Archeological Society Newsletter 112:4-5.
1987 Excavating a Glenwood Earthlodge, 13ML176: An Overview. Paper presented at the 45th Plains Conference, Columbia, Missouri.

Semken, Holmes A., Jr., and Carl R. Falk
1987 Late Pleistocene/Holocene Mammalian Faunas and Environmental Changes on the Northern Plains of the United States. In Late Quaternary Mammalian Biogeography and Environments of the Great Plains and Prairies, edited by Russell W. Graham, Holmes A. Semken, Jr., and Mary Ann Graham, pp. 176-313. Scientific Papers Vol. 22. Illinois State Museum, Springfield. 199?? [add article re. ML176]

Smith, Bruce D.
1978 Prehistoric Patterns of Human Behavior: A Case Study in the Mississippi Valley. Academic Press, New York.

Spielmann, Katherine A.
1982 Inter-Societal Food Acquisition among Egalitarian Societies: An Ecological Analysis of Plains/Pueblo Interaction in the American Southwest. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
1983 Late Prehistoric Exchange between the Southwest and the Southern Plains. Plains Anthropologist 28:257-272

Stevenson, Katherine P.
1985 Oneota Subsistence-Related Behavior in the Driftless Area: A Study of the Valley View Site near La Crosse, Wisconsin. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Styles, Bonnie W.
1981 Faunal Exploitation and Resource Selection: Early Late Woodland Subsistence in the Lower Illinois Valley. Scientific Papers No. 3. Archaeological Program, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois.

Tandarich, John P., and Loren N. Horton
1976 A Memorial Bibliography of Charles R. Keyes and Ellison J. Orr. Journal of the Iowa Archeological Society 23:45-143.

Theler, James L.
1987 Woodland Tradition Economic Strategies: Animal Resource Utilization in Southwestern Wisconsin and Northeastern Iowa. Report 17. Office of the State Archeologist, Iowa City.
1990 Prehistoric Freshwater Mussel (Naiad) Assemblages from Southwestern Iowa. American Malacological Bulletin 7:127-130.

Tiffany, Joseph A.
1981 The Keyes Archaeological Collection: A Finder's Guide. Iowa State Historical Department, Division of the State Historical Society, Iowa City.
1983 Chan-ya-ta: A Mill Creek Village. Report 15. Office of the State Archaeologist, Iowa City.
1991 Models of Mississippian Culture History in the Western Prairie Peninsula: A Perspective from Iowa. In Cahokia and the Hinterlands: Middle Mississippian Cultures of the Midwest, edited by Thomas E. Emerson and R. Barry Lewis, pp. 183-192. University of Illinois Press, Urbana.

Tiffany, Joseph A. (editor)
1982 A Preliminary Report on the Arthur Site, East Okoboji Lake, Iowa. Research Papers 7(1). Office of the State Archaeologist, Iowa City.

Tiffany, Joseph A., and Larry R. Abbott
1982 Site Catchment Analysis: Applications to Iowa Archaeology. Journal of Field Archaeology 9:313-322.

Tiffany, Joseph A., Duane C. Anderson, Shirley J. Schermer, James L. Theler, Douglas W. Owsley, E. Arthur Bettis, III, and Dean M. Thompson.
1988 The Hanging Valley Site (13HR28): A Stratified Woodland Burial Locale in Western Iowa. Plains Anthropologist 33:219-259.

Wedel, Waldo R.
1938 The Direct Historical Approach in Pawnee Archaeology. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collection Vol. 97, No. 7. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.
1959 An Introduction to Kansas Archaeology. Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 174. Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C.
1961 Prehistoric Man on the Great Plains. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman.
1970 Along the Trail--Some Observations on ``Two House Sites in the Central Plains: An Experiment in Archaeology.'' Nebraska History 51:225-252.
1978 The Prehistoric Plains. In Ancient Native Americans, edited by Jesse D. Jennings, pp. 183-219. W. H. Freeman, San Francisco.
1979 House Floors and Native Settlement Populations in the Central Plains. Plains Anthropologist 24:85-98.
1986 Central Plains Prehistory. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln. 

Wood, W. Raymond (editor)
1969 Two House Sites in the Central Plains: An Experiment in Archaeology. Plains Anthropologist Memoir 6.

Zalucha, L. Anthony
1982 Methodology in Paleoethnobotany: A Study in Vegetational Reconstruction Dealing with the Mill Creek Culture of Northwestern Iowa. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Zimmerman, Larry J.
1971 The Glenwood Taxonomic Problem. Unpublished M.A. thesis, Department of Anthropology, University of Iowa, Iowa City.
1976 Archaeological Research in the Glenwood Locality: Changing Perspectives. Proceedings of the Iowa Academy of Science 83:121-124.
1977a The Glenwood Local Sequence: A Reexamination. Journal of the Iowa Archeological Society 24:62-83.
1977b Prehistoric Locational Behavior: A Computer Simulation. Report 10. Office of the State Archaeologist, Iowa City.